Farsightedness (hyperopia) is a visual impairment in which a person has difficulty distinguishing close-up objects.
Hyperopia is observed in the overwhelming percentage of newborns – up to 90% or more. However, as the eyeball grows in the anteroposterior direction, the visual acuity levels off, and by the age of 20-25, hyperopia amounts to about 30%. In the second half of life, the incidence of the disease increases again.
Causes and risk factors
Immediate causes of hyperopia 2:
- Reduction of the anteroposterior size of the eyeball, with the focus falling outside the retina. Physiologically, it is observed in newborns and infants within the first three years of life.
- Decreased accommodation – an ability of the lens to change its curvature. It occurs mainly in the elderly.
Risk factors leading to hyperopia:
- hereditary background,
- anomaly in the development of the eyeball (microphthalmia),
- age-related decrease of the lens elasticity.
According to the degree of visual impairment, the following types of hyperopia are distinguished:
- Mild (weak). Deviations up to 2 dioptres.
- Medium. Deviations from the norm up to 5 dioptres. There is great difficulty when working with small parts, reading, knitting, etc.
- High. Hyperopia of more than 5 dioptres. In this case, the clarity of the image is disturbed both near and far.
The basic symptom of hyperopia is blurred images when seeing close-up objects (at a distance of 30-50 cm).
Other symptoms that may be observed:
- rapid eye strain,
- visual discomfort.
Distance vision with mild to medium hyperopia may be normal, and with a high degree, it may decrease.
Typically, hyperopia is diagnosed after an eye examination with a phoropter and a sign projector, as well as refractometry. However, in order to identify the cause of hyperopia and determine its nature, a more in-depth examination is required, which may include:
- ultrasound of the eye,
- measuring intraocular pressure,
- scanning the surface of the cornea,
- fundus examination,
- checking fields of vision.
This information helps to rule out similar diseases and the best choice of glasses or contact lenses.
Treatment of hyperopia depends on the stage of the disease and the effectiveness of the previous therapy.
Contact lenses and glasses. In case of hyperopia, doctors prescribe collecting lenses with a positive focus.
This is a sparing method of correcting hyperopia. The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis for 10-20 minutes. Our medical centre uses 4 types of advanced methods of laser correction of the disorder.